A couple of good resources
check out IRCAM's research on many different areas within sound/music:
Shannon Mattern's course is thoroughly documented, a good mix of theoretical and practical stuff : http://www.wordsinspace.net/course_material/sound_space/sound_space_F05.html
In the Industrial and EBM-scene we have DAF and Nitzer Ebb being very iconic having a sound based in pretty pure analogue synthesis. Though also avid users of the Emulator line of samplers, Front 242 too are known to us a lot of subtractive synthesis in a pretty unique way, though it's quite frankly a mixture between analoge waveforms and PCM-wave-based. ...
You can cross Lady Gaga off your list! Utter sheep and nothing original. And Messiaen didn't use substractive synthesis.
The obvious ones are:
Walter/Wendy Carlos (Switched on Bach)
Vangelis (highest profile being Chariots of Fire & Blade Runner soundtracks)
Stevie Wonder, esp his collaborations with TONTO
ELP (Lucky Man)
The Beatles (Here Comes The ...
If you're heading down the path of interactive design, you will likely not be served better than by acquiring skills in Max/MSP (or related software like PureData, Plogue Bidule etc). What you get is basically a blank canvas upon which to build, without presumption, your ideas. If you're disciplined, you can even teach yourself using the provided tutorials. ...
An artist is an artist.
Yes, you may operate equipment, which is also what technicians do.
Yes, you may study or be influenced/inspired by human psychology, which is what psychologists do.
But to consider an artist a technician would be a bad analogy. To consider an artist a psychologist would be a false analogy. Art is not about equipment, art is about ...