This doesn't specifically answer your question but, based on what you asked, I think this is what you need to know.
For something like echolocation, you would be using a signal with a specific frequency (high for precision or low for long range). You don't need to block out all the other noise - you just need to look for a corresponding return of the specific frequency you sent out. If you sent out a 40kHz signal, you would be looking specifically for a 40kHz echo to return.
You could do this with filters set to remove everything above and below your chosen frequency or by choosing a frequency band that is normally clear of interference.
A good system might send out multiple frequencies as failsafe's for any signals that do get masked by other noises or they might be able to switch frequencies to overcome a persistent source of interference or conflict with other echolocation systems operating nearby.
The frequencies used are often beyond the limit of human hearing (bats use up to 100kHz) which not only helps to distinguish the return signal from environmental noise but also gives them a strong sense of the density of any objects they encounter.
Parking sensors use echolocation by ultrasound for object avoidance. Using the ultrasound range means very little environmental interference - they still work despite being mounted on a noisy car in a noisy street.
A relatively inexpensive ultrasound echolocation device can be made using off-the-shelf parts and open source code - lots of STEM kits for kids include the parts for this