Yes, but it probably will not give good sound as the signal might be too strong.If it works simply be aware of the risk for clipping of the sound. I would presser a special cable and connect using 6.5mm TRS.
Do NOT connect to XLR as you might by mistake enable 48V phantom which might be detrimental to the phone. Use the inner 6.5mm input
The phone has a TRRS connector used for: left out, right out, mic, ground.
The sound card has TRS connector used for one channel: plus, minus, ground. If you connect a standard headphone cable you will get distorted sound.
The cable to search for is "3.5 stereo to 1/4 mono", sometimes called a splitter cable.