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If I amplify some audio file (maybe because it's unhearable before) using some amplifying tool, how can I know that playing the new (output) audio file won't damage my speakers?

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No matter what the maximum volume is of the file, your amplifier will have input and output maximum. If the input is too high, your gain stage will clip - generally not pleasant, but it limits the signal. And your speakers should be powerful enough to cope with the maximum your amp can push out. So if you have a 100W amp, having speakers that can cope with 150W is likely to be just fine. I have often used 150W amplifiers with speaker stacks that can cope with 250W. That way I know the limiting factor will be my ears, not the speakers.

More generally, just play the first time with low gain/volume... something like this is how bands will set up in any new venue with unknown sound desk etc:

  • Have all gain and volume set to zero
  • Turn on kit
  • Start playing
  • Increase input gain until signal is at correct level for amplifier
  • Increase volume to get desired output
  • Monitor in case changes are needed

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