Is there any way to use a microphone in a Line-in jack (e.g., with a pre-amp, phantom power, etc.)?
Yes, you can use an external microphone preamplifier, these convert the mic signal to line level.
Yes. And your question included the answer how! The item that changes a mic level signal to line level is called a preamp. And if the mic is a type that requires phantom power, a preamp can provide it.
Don't get sucked into the world of boutique preamps. It's an easy job that can be done cheaply.
You might consider something like this. It's a bit more than just a simple microphone preamp, but its facilities could come in useful for other things.