The green circle shows where I connected the microphone, red ones are the RCA connectors with a 6.3mm adapter and I also connected my headphones. Once I did all that, I can hear the sound coming from my laptop and also hear my voice when I talk into the microphone, but I am not able to record my voice on the laptop.
You appear to be trying to OUTput from a pair of Line IN sockets! Try feeding the computer from the Main Out sockets, or the Tape Out phonos.
It may be that the Mic In on your computer will auto-adjust to a line level signal. Today's equipment is very forgiving in this way! Try, anyway.