If I want to raise the volume of a track by 10%, how do I figure out how many decibels to raise it by? Does that change based on the original volume of the track?
It depends on what you mean by "volume". If you want to increase the sound energy by 10%, you'd increase by 10*log10(1.10) dB (0.4dB). If you want to increase the amplitude by 10%, you increase by double that.
If you want to increase the subjective logarithmic volume impression by 10%, you multiply the previous dB-value by 1.10 .
So what do you mean by "raise the volume"?