It sounds to me like possibly a delay plus a filter that are both sweeping upwards, though I'm not sure if there is some other common effect that would accomplish this sound.
It's pitched up and the time interval is exponentially shortened. If it wasn't done manually with a sequencer or sampler, which it most probably was, then it would most likely be a delay module with pitch and delay modulation. I have a delay effect capable of something similar in Reaktor.
But I think it was just done by hand in a sequencer. You could tell for definite by putting it into a sequencer, setting the correct BPM and checking if the intervals line up with semiquavers, hemidemisemiquavers, etc. If it lines up then it's unlikely it was done any other way.
Sounds like a sample that was looped, but the pitch of the sample (without warping) was raised. So each time the loop executed, was getting shorter and shorter as the sample (pitched up) was raised.
Bet it was done in a sampler.