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I'm not that good at reading electronic schemes.

If I minimize the gain ~1/10 of condenser mic and make some continuous noise of enough dB to have just no clipping, and then increase the gain 10/10, can this damage the mic?

PS: just want to mention, I've got Zoom H2n.

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    The chances of damaging the mic are not affected at all by what gain you have on the ip channel; it's purely a function of the max physical SPL the mic can take - see sound.stackexchange.com/questions/30/… for a similar question – Tetsujin Nov 22 '16 at 9:01
  • @Tetsujin, thanks you, sir. How about blowing into the mic with a mouth? Can it be damaging? – Qeeet Nov 22 '16 at 14:30
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    Blowing into the microphone has an excellent chance of being DAMAGING. It is NEVER recommended to do anything like this. That is a main reason that microphones indented for vocal use have blast filters between the mouth and the microphone. – Richard Crowley Nov 23 '16 at 5:35
  • @RichardCrowley, I thought it is mainly for eliminating plosives – Qeeet Nov 23 '16 at 7:24
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    There is no difference between plosives and blowing into the microphone except the length of the event. – Richard Crowley Nov 23 '16 at 16:10
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The signal chain starts at the microphone array and goes out from there. There is no possible way that altering the gain will affect the microphone capsules.

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The existing comments and answer are clear about the situation with the mic, so to expand on your question a bit, there is some chance that you could damage the input amplifier on your recording device and anything else in the chain past that point.

Square-waves (basically what happens when you have an over-driven signal) are bad for speakers especially. There are some exception with techniques using mic or guitar-amp speaker breakup etc., but be very careful about recording and playback amplitude in those cases.

Basically, never overload a mic in any way unless you take sufficient action to protect the rest of your signal chain

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