I'm going to write about how I would record a trumpet.
First off, I don't like the recorded sound to be neutral when I'm mixing. I want it to be pre-mixed in the recording process. If the trumpet will be playing a lead, I want a recorded sound that is big and tall and brash and will muscle all the other sounds out of the way all by itself when I bring the fader up. If the trumpet will be more background, then I want it to be small and meek and sit in a corner (at least as much as possible for a trumpet). If it's going to go from background to lead, I want both, which usually means at least two different recording setups (if time allows). If you can only make one set of takes, then you might want to split the difference and/or get multiple mics that you can mute and unmute for the different sections. If in doubt, get too much sound (more lead) since it's easier to cut away what you don't want than it is to add what you don't have.
The trumpet is directional enough that we have to think about it (most instruments are), and trumpet players certainly might want to move around a bit, even when recording, so that might be a challenge. The best players will move while recording to actually help with the mixing, but let's assume that's not going to happen.
I would put a decent dynamic pretty close to the trumpet, pointed at the bell, pretty much aligned on-axis, maybe about a foot away. Then (as the comments suggest), I would play around a little with the distance and on/off axis position to get the main body of the sound. Here you are looking at getting the amount of "spit" and upper mid/low highs which will give you a bit of the brashness. The more lead the trumpet is, the more on-axis you want, and vice-versa for background. The more the player can't resist moving the trumpet around, the farther back you'll need to be to get a consistent sound, which also makes the sound a little smaller and farther away, so for a powerful lead you gotta lock down the player more. I would like an RE-20 or MD-421 for this job. Really my favorite would be RE-20 which sounds kinda like Motown to me, but I might go 421 if I want a more 70s AOR sound. If I only had access to your mics, I'd put the 58 here, which would certainly do a decent job.
Ok, that's the main body of the trumpet and might be all we will need and use, but I want some air and more options, so I want a large-diaphram condensor between five and fifteeen feet away. Depending on the room you have, you might want to pick this sound first by having the trumpeter play in different places in the room while walking yourself around different places in the room and looking for the best sound. When you found your favorite place, (pay attention to any low end and low mids since really room modes are important here) mark yours and the player's positions with board tape or spike tape and put the LDC/room mic at the place where you marked. Now again you'll want to tweak the position by listening to what the mic is actually hearing. Start with the mic at the level of your ears and look to balance the sound of the room with the direct sound in a way that sounds good. The better the room, the more you can allow in without having a bad sound. Normally you don't want to point the mic right at a wall at a 90 degree angle or anything close to glass of any kind. I'd really like an AKG C414 of some flavor for this, or maybe an AT 4033, although with my locker I'd probably use a KSM-44. In your case, the Perception if that's what you've got.
So this way I have a main, brash, full trumpet sound and a thinner but taller more airy sound and lots of options at mix time.