Do we need any driver to connect microphone to laptop or android phone using xlr to usb connector?
Normally, for laptop we don't need any drivers, which likes usb-mouse is a standard USB subclass device. which subclass is "audio". The OS has it's driver already.
for Android device, Android is based Linux kernel, it can works fine in kernel level, but because this device is seldom use to Android Phone, if it is supported based your Android OS version and vendor.
after Android 5.0, Android device support USB audio standardly (Android support for USB audio class). before Android 5.0 your Phone Vendor can also enable supported for USB audio.
PS: I'm an linux/android developer.