Disclaimer:Most of my experience is from live work but the principles are the same.
How you mic drums depends on how many channels you have got available and what the drum kit is. As an example the last time I miced a drum it was a 6 piece and I had the following channels; kick, snare, Hat, Tom 1, Tom 2, Tom 3, Tom 4, Overhead Left, Overhead Right.
If I'd wanted more flexibility with the sound and had the equipment available I might have added another mic to the kick - one inside the shell, the other in front of it. This gives flexibility to balance the click and the boom on a per song basis. The other additional mic I might have used would have been on the underside of the snare so that more rattle could be added if needed. Obviously with only 8 channels of input and needing to record multiple instruments in 1 take you can't do this, but you can see how you could change things if just recording drums.
You have an 8 channel sound card so assuming guitar and bass are mono that leaves you with 6 channels for the drum kit. As a minimum I'd mic the kick and snare with dynamics, and use the condenser as an overhead. Once you've tried that and see how it sounds you could try adding more mics in such as for toms or the high hat.
As for how to position the mics it's a bit of trial and error, obviously one thing to make sure is they don't get in the way of the drum sticks or get hit by cymbals. With the kick how the mic should be positioned depends on if it has a hole in the front or not. If it does then a dynamic mic places on a jumper or duvet inside the drum can work well. With the other drums I tend to aim the mic at the point where the stick will usually hit the skin, but pointing it away can give a less clicky sound. The best thing you can do is try various positions around the drums and see how it affects the sound, and see which sound you prefer.
Obviously doing multiple instruments in the same room you will get some spill into other mics (in the same way you do when mixing live) which isn't ideal. One thing you might consider is moving the guitar amp into another room and using headphones so you can hear yourself. This in conjunction with DIing the bass means the only spill will be from one drum mic into another which is always going to happen, but at least you won't be getting guitar bleeding in as well.