We are six students who search information about making our own phonograph. We have to make it completely by ourself and we have to use everyday components to make it. We want to base our phonograph on the model of Thomas Edison.
There's a plethora of information if you google "DIY Phonograph". My two favorites are below, and I think the Gakken Cup is close to what you're looking for. This site has lots of detailed photos of the parts to help give you some inspiration about making one yourself; I suspect you're not allowed to buy a kit... :)