I'm a musician with a classical background, and I'm really interested in the complete process of Music Production (Acoustic Conditioning, Recording, Post-Producing). I'd love to start learning in a self-taught manner, so I'm looking for material. Are there any books or websites that could help me to accomplish this? (My intention is to use Ubuntu Studio)
I recommend looking into a free online course from a site like Coursera .
There are also plenty of books available: The Sound Reinforcement Handbook by Gary Davis or Modern Recording Techniques by Huber could be a good resource for learning about the subjects you mentioned.
Loudon Stearns of Berkleemusic.com runs Introduction to Music Production course on Coursera. It's free. I can't recommend Loudon's courses high enough. If you hooked up, you may also choose to take his paid Berkleemusic.com course. It will blow you away. I promise.
As for the choice of gear and software, it strongly depends on the kind of music you want to produce. Is it going to be symphonic music, rock, pop or electronic dance music? Will you need to record vocals?
And on a side note, as much as I love Ubuntu, I highly recommend to look at Reaper as you DAW choice, at least until you realise what you really need. You can even run it on Linux via WineAsio.
And, oh, Ubuntu Studio may not be the best choice of distro if you decide to stick to Linux. I'd go with KXStudio if you like Ubuntu, or AVLinux if bulletproof Debian is you weapon of choice. Both of them have more stuff working out of the box, less stuff to fiddle with. Linux Musicians forum is a good place to ask questions if you're into Linux music production. Just be prepared that you'll spend more time trying to make things work than making music.
First of all, if you want to get into production: Buy a nice pair of near field monitor speakers. Everything you will learn, you will audition trough those speakers, so they are your portal into the whole audio production. After that you need some room treatment to get rid of unnecessary early reflection. I tell you this, because i started out in audio production without good monitors and a lot that i did was useless since i couldn't really hear whats going on. Then you need to get into the working in DAWs. Industry standards are ProTools (big studios) and logic/cubase (smaller studios).
After that get a SM57 mic or something and start recording anything. Your vocals, guitar, piano, whatever just to get a feel of how to record things into your computer. (If you buy a m box interface, which you need to record, you get a small version of protools, a very good point to start out). Then i would play around with the materials, while you read your DAWs manual. It is important, that you learn the hotkeys and names of the different tools in the DAW.
After you played around for a bit, I can recumbent the book: "Mixing secrets for the small studio". This will give you a very i depth look into post production of music, while offering you pre recorded sessions to train with. I would really spend some time toying around with these sessions to get a hang of how recorded instruments can sound and what are your possibilities in postproduction.
Next step is going int recording and this is where it get really costy. you need a very good room, very good microphones and very good mix preamps if you want to achieve a good sound. So the best thing is to scout for some recording studios and ask them for an training. Cheap and good starting mics are a SM 57, SM 58 and the studio projects B1.