Mainly projects/practical work. Projects are the only real way to train what one's really training to do, when taking a sound post / sound design / sound production for media course. Projects can be designed so that there's an increasing level of difficulty/complexity. Group or teacher-student discussions and feedback regarding the results and during the project work are extremely important in giving guidance and further thoughts for the student about his art and thoughts on how he/she can improve himself/herself. Ideally the project work should be done with students stuyding visual arts, film making, animation and/or e.g. game programming, because then the projects can be self-planned and self-executed group projects, rather than given and boring individual assignments on pre-existing media (eventhough that might often be the case when working for real. However, creating something new should still be more motivating than working on e.g. film snippets or trailers.). It's also a great and an important way for the students to form connections.
Only minimal amounts of guidance to mic techniques (including location recording. Emphasizing how the mic techniques apply to capturing sound! Some quick practicals could be useful.) and software and gear operation as it applies to shaping a soundtrack. Formal teaching of technical stuff should be kept to a minimum on an art course, because those things will come naturally and at the required level (which is probably individual for every student) in the project work. I think that for "technical audio" there are acoustics and electronics or software engineering courses.
Additionally or optionally small masterclass-style courses on e.g. foley (to see the vastness of materials, objects and techniques that can be used to create sound effects). Maybe a small course on sound synthesis and sample-based synthesis, just enough so that students become familiar with what kinds of sounds synthesis and sample processing (basic sampler functions and granular synthesis) are useful for. Could bundle other "plug-in based sound design techniques" in the same package as well. Perhaps something small regarding voice recording and acting and VO.
I think that's about it for a sound post/sound design course, not including music composition.
I'm also thinking of something regarding analysis of sound use. I think it's quite common in courses to have at least one write up (or a practical) on some film scene so that it's assured that students have been introduced to concepts such as silence and diagetic/non-diagetic and off-screen sound. Most students will likely be into the subject enough so that they already consume the media a lot and thus understand "how it should sound" quite well, but a brief introduction to critical listening and understanding these few theoretical concepts might be essential for those that might not have thought of the aspects that a sound scene can have. Not sure, if it's essential though, or whether it could be easily integrated to the practical work.
Overall as much as possible should be integrated to the practical work, rather than presenting stuff as separate concepts/modules. Everything is applicable for almost every, if not every soundtrack creation anyways, so why not let the practicing happen there.