Personally I don't think glass hitting a 57 will damage it at all, 57s are built like tanks. Pretty sure you could hit it with the golf club and then plug it in and it work, maybe even sound better :P Only thing is if something hits the mic, it will be very noticeable in the recording, same thing will happen with a windscreen or saran wrap. It is going to take a few whacks with a golf club to completely bust out a windshield. If the 57 is inside the car, that should take care of any wind situation. You also always have the option of the rear glass to use for recording for later. Hell if they are getting rid of the car after, go to town on it.
A couple of times I've done impact things on set, I've actually thrown Y cables in line because I had less mics than I had channels, I was able to set gain on each mic for impact/and aftermath.
If your trying to also get some low stuff, you could always close mic it before the action and kind of thump the windshield with the bottom of your hand and just label as wild tracks. Then move stuff outta the way and let camera get set up. That would give you some thump with the acoustics of the car and then the actual smash could be blended in post.
Pull out a speaker in the dash and stash the mic inside pointing through speaker cover up at the impact point Would let you get pretty close, keep it out of frame, and the grill will protect from glass shards. Also very easy to stash a decent radio mic in the speaker area or in the visor. Impact location and camera is going to change your options.
Sounds like it's gonna be fun, wear some safety glasses if your close :P