There are patch books out there that describe how to approximate various instruments and sound effects with a subtractive synth. Your best bet is probably to scour eBay for a few titles and see if they are close enough to what you are looking for. The Synth Secrets series that Dave mentions is the way to go if you want to build up your own patches from scratch.
If your goal is to create recognizable timbres with a synthetic edge, definitely consider FM synthesis. You often hear people talking about the "thinness" of digital synthesizers, but what they are really talking about is early (digital) virtual-analog synths and romplers with weak or nonexistent filters. Some of the thickest, punchiest basslines came from Yamaha's DX series. And FM synthesis can definitely do otherworldly synthetic sounds.
From a sound design perspective, you can accomplish a great deal with the 4-op Operator synth that is available with Ableton Live. Native Instruments' FM8 is also very powerful. Finally, the rackmount Yamaha boxes are very affordable and much more fun to play with than you might expect from a button-box.
John Chowning's FM Theory and Applications is an excellent place to start on FM synthesis. It is out of print, but not too hard to find.
Another option that is outside the scope of analog synths, but may still be useful to the asker is physical modeling synths. Physical Modeling is a set of synthesis strategies that are different from both "analog" subtractive synthesis and FM synthesis. Logic's Sculpture is an excellent software PM synth. Roland's SuperNatural synths seem to be very good, though expensive. And Korg's flagship workstations also include some degree of physical modeling. If you are on a budget, or just want something that is a bit more otherworldly, then Korg's Z1 and Prophecy shouldn't be overlooked. Yamaha's VL series is also worth a look, though substantially harder to program (yet more powerful) than the Korgs.