How is sample rate frequency related to audio frequency?
For example, say I have an audio file with a sample rate of 44100 Hz, 1 byte per sample (256 different values), and, for simplicity, a single channel.
I know that human hearing can perceive frequencies from 20Hz to 20kHz. Consider for example, 1 second of sound: it consists of 44100 values which can be from 0 to 256.
How can I detect how to divide 44100 (sample rate) by 20Hz and 62Hz, 125Hz .... 16khz (for example 10 band eq). In other words how to define if the specified sample refers to 20Hz or 62Hz or 16kHz, etc.?